[Wellbeing & You] A.C.E. of Immunity

March 9, 2022

Maintaining the wellbeing of our immune system has never been more important than now that we are in the midst of the biggest wave of COVID-19 outbreak in our city. While you try your best to practice personal hygiene and social distancing, we have some tips for you on how to “ACE” your inner defence game with the right nutrients!

Vitamins A, C and E are powerful antioxidants which help scavenge loose and potentially harmful molecules called “free radicals” circulating in our body, critical to maintaining a healthy immune system.

How much vitamins A, C and E should we consume each day?

AgeVitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
(mg α-TE)
1 – 3 years old310356
4 – 6 years old360407
7 – 10 years old500559
11 – 14 years oldMale: 670
Female: 630
15 – 17 years oldMale: 820
Female: 630
18 years old and aboveMale: 800
Female: 700

Overwhelmed by all the numbers? No worries, all you need to do is to adequately consume a variety of fruits and vegetables! A simple rule of thumb: get 2 servings of fruits and 3 servings of vegetables every day!

  • One serving of fruit is equivalent to:
    • 2 pieces of small-sized fruits (such as plum, kiwifruit)
    • 1 piece of medium-sized fruit (such as orange, apple)
    • 1⁄2 piece of large-sized fruit (such as banana, grapefruit, star fruit)
    • 1⁄2 bowl of fruit cuts (such as watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew melon)
    • 1⁄2 bowl of mini-sized fruit (such as grapes, lychees, cherries, strawberries)
    • 1 tablespoon of dried fruits without added sugar or salt
    • 3⁄4 cup of pure fruit juice* without added sugar
  • One serving of vegetable is equivalent to:
    • 1 bowl of raw leafy vegetables
    • 1⁄2 bowl of cooked vegetables, sprouts, gourds, beans or mushrooms
    • 3⁄4 cup of fresh vegetable juice without added sugar
  • One cup is equivalent to 240 ml
  • One bowl is equivalent to 250 to 300 ml

Try to incorporate these foods into your daily 2+3 fruits & vegetables intake to get enough vitamins A, C and E!

Vitamin AVitamin CVitamin E
Leafy green vegetables
(e.g. spinach, broccoli)

Orange and yellow vegetables (e.g. carrots, pumpkin)


Red bell pepper



Beef liver

Dairy products*
(e.g. low-fat milk or yogurt)


Fortified foods
(e.g. breakfast cereal)
Citrus fruits
(e.g. oranges, kiwi, grapefruits)

Bell peppers




Brussel sprouts



White potatoes
Sunflower, safflower and soybean oil

Sunflower seeds


Peanuts and peanut butter*



Red bell pepper



*Caution: Not for individuals with diagnosed milk/egg/nut allergies. Please consult your physician and registered dietitian first for any suspected food allergies.


Hong Kong Department of Health (DoH HK), Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes 2013